Drilling Waste Minimization Strategies

Drilling waste minimization is a method to reduce any waste generated from drilling operation. The ideal goal of it is to generate zero residue requiring final disposals. People have developed technologies for two main reasons which are project cost reduction and environmental protection.

Typically, the drilling waste minimization starts with reducing amount of drilling waste, recycling and recovering waste streams which will be covered in next topics in this blog.

Strategies for minimizing drilling waste are listed below:

• Minimize hole volume

• Optimize drilling mud and solid control equipment

• Reusing drilling fluids and water as much as possible

• Motivating contractors by creating the achievable waste management scheme so they can get good payment and overall waste is reduced

• Using only required chemical in drilling mud and reducing toxic fluid additives

• Eliminating single packing waste by using bulk material delivery

• Optimizing solid control equipment

• Using experienced personnel to work on the project

• Developing best practices to manage drilling waste

• Implementing special waste monitoring programs which will tell people signs if the operation is met both economical and environmental criteria.

• Studying new technology from several sources and implement some techniques that suite with the drilling operation in the area

We will try to cover a lot of details regarding the drilling waste management in many aspects in the following articles. Please feel free to sign up the newsletter to get the update from us.

Reference from: Drilling Waste Minimization Strategies article from drilling mud blog.

View the original article here

Drilling Formula Excel Sheet Version 1.3 Version 2012 Free Download

Today, we would like to distribute the new update

Drilling formula version 1.3. It is still totally FREE!

What new drilling formulas are added into the drilling formula version 1.3?

Effective Viscosity

Hydraulic Horse Power (HPP)

Optimum Flow Rate for basic system

Power Law Constant

Pressure Loss Annulus

Pressure Loss Annulus With Tool Joint Correction

Pressure Loss Drillstring

Pressure Loss Drillstring With Tool Joint Correction

Pressure Loss in Surface Equipment

Reynold Number

How many total useful drilling formulas in this version?

There are a total of 87 formulas which are divided into 7 categories (Applied Drilling Formulas, Basic Drilling Formulas, Directional Drilling Calculation, Drilling Fluid Formulas, Engineering Formulas, Hydraulic Formulas and Well Control Formulas).

Download Now For Free!!!

View the original article here

Release of SPR Crude

Actions of OPEC and free market factors were already in place to bring oil prices down. It is the stated goal of OPEC members to get oil trading between $75.-$80 bbl . The fundamentals for this price reducing goal were already in place, along with market forces which had oil predestined to meet these goals. The Obama administration is simply seeking to capitalize on a pre-existing market dynamic and claim undue credit in order to translate falling pump prices into votes. A scheme that , with the help of the media and an oil-ignorant populace, will likely work.

Release of crude from the SPR is a bad idea, decreases national security and is, in this instance, DEFINITELY politically motivated. If the administration was truly concerned about fuel prices at the pump, they would place a moratorium on federal fuel taxes, and if release of SPR crude were out of "genuine concern" (which it is not) they'd have taken this action , and tooted their horn about it, a few months ago when prices were reaching their peak and still climbing (it wouldn't have helped prices back then, just as it won't in the big picture now, but at least now, in a falling market, it is easy to put forth the appearance that the release of SPR crude is accomplishing something).

Comment by Drilling Ahead on June 26, 2011 at 10:45am I have to agree 100% Chris. Our share of the 60 million barrel release(which would fuel the world for 17 hours) is 30 million barrels. What does President Obama plan to do with the revenue from the 30 million barrels? Is he just using this as smoke and mirrors to get his hands on billions of dollars in extra spending money for Congress? When we replace the 30 million barrels we released-it will be at a higher price and in the end it will just be another colossal waste of taxpayer money.Comment

View the original article here

Geo-Pressured Shale Causes Stuck Pipe

Pore pressure in shale is more than hydrostatic pressure; however the well does not flow because shale is in permeable. While drilling through pressured shale formation, pressure in shale causes fractures of shale due to stress crack.

Shale finally falls into the well and results in stuck pipe incident.

Warning signs of geo-pressured shale

• Shale fractures are seen at shale shakers.

• Possibly observe change in d-exponent, which means a sign of abnormal pressure, from mud logger.

• Pump pressure abnormally increases.

• Increase in rate of penetration (ROP).

• When compared to a normal trend, torque and drag trend abnormally increase.

• Background gas may increase.

Indications when you stuck due to geo-pressured shale

• It could be happened either while tripping or drilling.

• When it happens, the hole may be completely packed off; therefore, circulate is restricted or impossible in some cases.

What should you do for this situation?

1. Attempt to circulate with low pressure (300-400 psi). Do not use high pump pressure because the annulus will be packed harder and you will not be able to free the pipe anymore.

2. If you are drilling or POOH, apply maximum allowable torque and jar down with maximum trip load.

3. If you are tripping in hole, jar up with maximum trip load without applying any torque.

4. Attempt until pipe free and circulate to clean wellbore.

Preventive actions

1. Use proper mud weight to create over balance. You may need to weight up prior to drilling in to high pressure shale zones.

2. Minimize surge pressure and equivalent circulating density (ECD) in the wellbore.

Reference: Drilling formulas blog in the section of stuck pipe

View the original article here

Overburden Stress Shale Causes Stuck Pipe

Overburden stress increases over depth (the more a well is drilled, the more overburden stress will be seen). When mud weight is not enough to support the overburden, the stress from the overburden will create shale fractures which will fall down into the wellbore. Finally, shale fractures will pack the wellbore and cause a stuck pipe incident,

(Mud weight is high enough to overcome overburden stress.)

Overburden Stress Causes Stuck Pipe 2

(Mud weight is not high enough to overcome overburden stress.)

Warning signs of overburden stress shale

• Torque and drag increase.

• Pump pressure increase.

• Abnormal amount of shale at shale shakers

• Caving shape of shale at shakers

Indications when you stuck due to overburden stress shale

• It could be happened either while tripping or drilling (most likely while drilling).

• When it happens, the hole may be completely packed off or bridged off; therefore, circulation is very difficult or impossible to establish.

What should you do for this situation?

1. Attempt to circulate with low pressure (300-400 psi). Do not use high pump pressure because the annulus will be packed harder and you will not be able to free the pipe anymore.

2. If you are drilling or POOH, apply maximum allowable torque and jar down with maximum trip load.

3. If you are tripping in hole, jar up with maximum trip load without applying any torque.

4. Attempt until pipe free and circulate to clean wellbore.

Preventive actions:

1. Use drilling mud that heavy enough to stabilize overburden stress.

2. Weight up mud prior to drilling into stressed shale zones.

Reference: Overburden Stress Shale Causes Stuck Pipe in Drilling Formulas blog

View the original article here

Cutting Slip Velocity Calculation - the first way

Cutting slip velocity is velocity of cutting that naturally falls down due to its density. In order to effectively clean the hole, effect of mud flow upward direction and mud properties must be greater than cutting slip velocity (settling tendency of cuttings). Otherwise, cutting will fall down and create cutting bed.
You can learn more detail about it via this topic -> Cutting Slip Velocity

This calculation will show annular velocity, cutting slip velocity and net velocity so you can use as a reference for you hole cleaning indication. There are 2 calculation methods and I will show the first method via this topic.

1. Determine annular velocity with following equation:


AV is annular velocity in ft/min.

Q is flow rate in gpm (gallon per minute).

Dh is diameter of hole in inch.

Dp is diameter of drill pipe in inch.

2. Determine cutting slip velocity with following equation:

Where; Vs is cutting slip velocity in ft/min.

PV is plastic viscosity in centi-poise.

MW is mud weight in ppg.

Dp is diameter of cutting in inch.

DenP is cutting density in ppg.

3. Determine net rise velocity with following equation:

Net rise velocity = AV – Vs

Where; AV is annular velocity in ft/min.

Vs Cutting Velocity in ft/min.

This figure indicates that cuttings are being lifted by mud or are still falling down. If net rise velocity is positive, it means that you have good flow rate which can carry cutting in the wellbore.
On the other hand,If net rise velocity is negative, your current flow rate is NOT engough to carry cuttings.

Example: Please use the following information to determine annular velocity, cutting slip velocity, net rise velocity, and tell us if the flow rate is good for hole cleaning.


Flow rate = 300 gpm

Hole Diameter = 6.3 inch

Drillpipe OD = 4 inch

PV = 15 cps

MW = 10 ppg

Diameter of cutting = 0.20 inch

Density of cutting = 20.0 ppg

1. Determine annular velocity:

AV = 310.3 ft/min

2. Determine cutting slip velocity:

Vs = 35.4 ft/min

3. Determine net rise velocity with following equation:

Net rise velocity = AV – Vs Net rise velocity = 310.3 – 35.4 = 274.9 ft/min

Conclusion: This flow rate is GOOD for hole cleaning practice because annular velocity is more than cutting slip velocity.

If you are interested in the spread sheet from this topic, please download from this site, Drilling Formula Calculation Sheet.

Reference from: drilling formulas

View the original article here

How To Determine Hole Size By Fluid Caliper

This article will demonstrate you how to determine hole size by fluid caliper. First of all, you need to know what is the fluid caliper is. The fluid caliper is one simple way to calculate hole diameter. The concept is based on hole volume, annular capacity, and inner capacity. You pump any substance and when you seen it on surface, you back calculate the hole size based on strokes pumped. It is quite tricky to explain so I would like you to see the example below which it will make you clear about what I say.

7” casing shoe is set at 5000’MD/4500’TVD

7” casing 23 ppf, ID 6.33 inch

4” drill pipe is used to drill the well and its ID is 3.34 inch.

4-3/4” drill collar is used as BHA and its ID is 2.5 inch. The length of drill collar is 500 ft.

This hole section is used water based mud and the bit size is 6-1/8”

Drill to section TD at 10,000’MD/9,000’TVD then drop carbide once TD is reached.

Pump output is 0.1 bbl/stroke.

Surface line from pumps to rig floor is 20 bbl.

Carbide is detected by a gas sensor on surface after 4,000 strokes pump.

With the given information, determine what is the hole size of the open hole section.

The basic drilling formulas that you need to know are inner capacity and annular capacity calculation.

1st step – Determine Inner Capacity and Annular Capacity of All Parts

Inner capacity of 4”DP

Inner capacity of 4”DP = 0.01084 bbl/ft

Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC

Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 bbl/ft

Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing

Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 bbl/ft

I assign “d” is the open hole diameter.

Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole

Annular capacity between 4 3/4” DP and open hole

2nd step – Determine Volume of All Parts

Volume in 4”DP = Inner capacity of 4”DP x length of 4” DP

Volume in 4”DP = 0.01084 x 9,500 = 103 bbl

Volume in 4-3/4”DC = Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC x length of 4-3/4”DC

Volume in 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 x 500 = 3 bbl

Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing x length of 4” DP inside 7” casing

Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 x 5,000 = 119 bbl

Volume between 4”DP and open hole = Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole x length of 4” DP inside open hole

Volume between 4-3/4”DC and open hole = Annular capacity between 4-3/4”DC and open hole x length of 4-3/4”DC inside open hole

3rd step – determine hole size. The total volume pump is equal to total volume in the system.

With the pump output of 0.1 bbl/stroke, 4000 strokes equate to 400 bbl.

In the following equation, I account for the surface volume from the pump to the rig floor.

Solve the equation to get d, d is equal to 6.97”.

Answer:You will get the hole size based on the fluid caliper of 6.97 inch.

I wish this article will give you idea on how to calculate hole size based on the fluid caliper.

Ref: Drilling Formulas blog in the topic of How To Determine Hole Size By Fluid Caliper

View the original article here

Starting A Rig Washing Business

Another late night researching OSHA confined spaces and H2S safety.

Eagle Ford Shale is in my back yard, and started Crude Rig Washing LLC with my younger brother, we are two months in the works.

I'm now fully comply with federal, state, general liability insurance, workers comp, truck trailer, employees hired, have all the equipment to perform my service to the oil and gas industries, PPEs', MSDS, and the dream team, with two (bad to the brizzle!) seasoned veterans as senior supers.

All this week I have been back and forth to locations making contacts with company men, filling out vendor forms. Now I'm looking for that call or Email.

Being that this is a holiday weekend I figured it might be a little time waiting for a response from the companies I desired and prayed I will be working for to give me that conformation, that I'm accepted.

Much anticipation should be worth the hard work set forth by my brother and family who stood behind me asking, "What you going to do now? Why not just sell it, and go back into home building," thanks mom!!! (lol)

I just wanted to thank Drilling Ahead for the information I obtained, and the Rig Count helped me big time. I'm going to keep posted keeping D.A. members informed.

Open for job leads; let those companies know I exist, also new employment opportunities coming soon within the New Year.
Crude Rig Washing, LLC

View the original article here

Kill Weight Mud

Kill Weight Mud or Kill Drilling Fluid Density is the mud weight required to balance formation pressure. The kill weight mud may be pumped into the well at different time depending on kill methods (Driller’s method, Wait and Weight, Bull head, etc).

How to determine kill weight mud?

With the following equation, you can determine this figure.

Kill Weight Mud (KWM) = Current Mud Weight + (SIDPP ÷ 0.052 ÷ Well TVD)


Kill Weight Mud (KWM) in ppg

Current Mud Weight in ppg

SIDP stands for “Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure” in psi.

Well TVD is true vertical depth of the well in ft.

If your drilling string has a solid float, you will not be able to read SIDPP right away. So you need to bump the float to get SIDPP. You can read more detail about it via this > float bumping procedure.


Drilling with 9.5 ppg mud and current depth at 9500’MD/9000’TVD. The well takes influx. Operation is stopped and the well is shut in.

Shut in drill pipe pressure = 550 psi.

Shut in casing pressure = 700 psi.

The kill weight mud required to balance formation pressure:

KWM = 9.5 + (550 ÷ 0.052 ÷ 9000)

KWM = 10.7 (round up number)

Why do we need to use SIDPP?

When you take a kick (wellbore influx), the density of fluid in the annulus is very hard to predict because it is a mixture between drilling mud and influx. Therefore, you don’t know exactly what the density in the annulus is. Moreover if you take gas kick, shut in casing pressure will increase over time, and you will NOT be able to identify the right shut in pressure to determine formation pressure.

Looking at the drill pipe side, there is only one pure fluid column so you know exactly its density. With the precise mud density, you can apply hydrostatic pressure concept in order to get the formation pressure and kill weight mud (the equation is showed at the beginning of the topic).

Reference : Kill Weight Mud topic at Drilling Formulas Blog

View the original article here

Trying To Locate 1502 2" Plug Valves

Trying to find someplace that a guy could get 1502 plug valves they are in short supply here in North Dakota and months out at the distributors in the state. If anyone knows where to find any i would be grateful for the info.


Comment by Dwayne "Cactus" Jones on December 4, 2011 at 2:46pm

Call NOV or Bell Supply in Kilgore, Texas and have them shipped to you

Comment by Dustin Frazier on December 4, 2011 at 3:04pm Comment by Roger Payne on December 4, 2011 at 3:11pm

You may have tryed this ! Call Kemper Valve In Sulpher, Ok. Or FMC in Stephenville,Tx. Or as Cactus said you may try the supply stores, But my guess would be the supply stores are haveing a hard time getting from people like the ones i posted above..

Comment by Scott Murdock on December 4, 2011 at 3:21pm

We have lots up here in alaska in prudhoe bay, but we are having a whiteout snow storm right now. Good luck in your search FMC is your best bet.

Comment by Scott Murdock on December 4, 2011 at 3:22pm

If anyone sees Darrie Lindberg, tell him murdock said you rock old man, and the nordic guys said hello too.

Comment by Horizon3 on December 4, 2011 at 5:02pm

You might try Schlumberger or Halliburton, or one of the other service companies, they might lease you some until you can get some from a distributor. I would imagine that FMC and the other valve companies are trying to play catchup with the recent booms going on overseas and in the Northern US, and that is why the supply houses and others are having a hard time getting them.

Comment by Wayne Nash on December 4, 2011 at 5:32pm

Call James at Weatherford, Williston.  If he can't find it for ya, nobody can.  701-339-2929. Tell him I sent ya.

Comment by BS Safety on December 4, 2011 at 6:25pm

May be something of a haul from West Texas but Halliburton has plenty.lol

Comment by Ted A Snelling Jr. on December 7, 2011 at 10:45am

Contact Phoinix Global LLC., Alice, TX  361-664-6163

They manufacture them.

Comment by Brock Hodges on December 30, 2011 at 10:39am

We can get them for you WB Supply Co  the 2" are running about 8 to 12 weeks out but 3" is usually shipped next day I you need any help call 806-669-1103 Ask for Mark or Brock or email me at bhodges@wbsupply.com  we can help you out for anything you may need, or do our best to get you what you need.


View the original article here

North Dakota & Pennsylvania to Oilfield Trash-"GET OUT!"

What it's Like To Be Oilfield Trash
Everyday the headlines read something about the hardships hard-working American men  are causing on cities and towns where drilling is occurring.

In Pennsylvania a Congressmen accuses oilfield workers of spreading sexually transmitted disease among his "womenfolks" as he calls them. The issue to him was never

"What were the womenfolks of his community doing dropping their panties for these oilfield workers" or "maybe it was the locals who actually harbored the disease and spread it to the workers to begin with"?

To these locals of Pennsylvania it's ok if you are a Penn State football coach who knew your staff was a child molester for over the last 9 years and not report it to the authorities-Hey the locals support this so much they take to the streets and overturn news vans and break windows, destroying the property of others so they can show their support for the staff that seemed to condone child molesting.

These are the same people calling us "Oilfield Trash"-If the term distinguishes me from them then I wear the moniker proudly.

The issue is the same in Williston North Dakota
City Councils there have started banning new "Man Camp" permits-meaning that the camps provided by the companies to house and feed their workers will no longer receive permitting. The reason the councils quote for this is because they cannot handle the influx of people-it's just to much of a burden on their resources. The excuse is just another lie the locals use to disguise the real truth.

Obviously a "Man Camp" by definition is designed to remove much of the burden off cities and stopping them would actually increase the burden on cities as the workers would need to find private housing. Maybe you have already guessed it-the city does not make money off the men staying in "Man Camps" so they want the Man Camps gone. The camps mean lost revenue for those on the council that own rental housing. Man Camps mean lost revenue for those that own the RV Parks. Man Camps also feed the workers this means lost revenue for the food and dining sector.

In North Dakota communities could care less about oilfield workers-in their greed all they want is the money and to hell with the living conditions and the individuals. In Williston you are nothing more than "Oilfield Trash"... nevermind that you are an honest hard-working American man far from home trying your best to provide a living for your family.

To these bigots of North Dakota you are trash.

Still have your doubts?

If they had their way in Williston, North Dakota your kids would not be allowed to ride the school bus with local kids-Oilfield Trash would have separate bathrooms and drinking fountains...you get the idea I'm sure.

If you still have your doubts that the prejudice exists in Williston-

This incident happened last night in a restaurant at the Eagle Ridge Golf Club of Williston as reported to me by a friend

My boss, was jumped in a restaurant last night in Williston, North Dakota...

Here's what happened..

He and his wife went to the little local country club... They were expecting other guests.. As such, they moved two tables together. The waiter came over and jumped all over him for it.

Ended up in an argument about it, but eventually, He just let it go. About 10 minutes later, a large group comes in.. They move tables together, and none of the staff said anything to them. So He calls the waiter over.. The waiter jumps all over his a**, calling him "white oilfield trash", and proceeds to start yelling at his wife.. Words got exchanged, to say the least.. He finally says screw it, and he and his wife turn to leave.. At which point, the waiter jumps him from behind, knocking him out....

It was made VERY clear that "trash" was not welcome on the property.

To those of you who take offense to not only being treated like trash but to those that also have a dislike for cowardly back jumping waiters you should stop by this club in Williston have a couple of shots of whiskey then share your concerns with the staff.

Contact details;

"Missouri Club" 

Located at

Eagle Ridge Golf Club
6401 3rd Ave E
PO Box 4125
Williston, ND 58801

As for me, if being "Oilfield Trash" means I am an honest hard-working man that provides for my family with back-breaking labor and the handful of skills the good lord provided me with then I accept the tag with pride.

View the original article here

"A Roughnecks Wife"

“A Roughneck Wife”

It’s his last day home…
The hitch begins tomorrow…
His days at home seem so short…
And I can feel the heartache coming just as it always does…
So I busy myself washin, packin up his clothes…
while the smell of oil base mud is fillin up our home…
It’s hard to keep my head up…
Cause tomorrow he’ll be gone…
but that Iron Hors?e is calling and it almost time to go…

I know it’s hard on him as well…
And I know he doesn’t like to go…
But the job it just won’t wait…
So he’s gettin ready to headed out…
Clear across the state…

As we load his bags in the truck…
He’s tellin us good-bye…
We watch him as he leaves…
Till his truck is out of sight…
With tears fallin down my cheek…
I’m prayin…
God watch over that Roughneck…
He means everything to me…

I keep my phone close to me…
Just in case he tries to call…
It doesn’t bring much comfort though…
Cause the rig is out to far…
And no one gets phone service…
So he can’t make that call…

I’m layin here in bed tonight…
Missin him so much…
Our daughter layin next to me…
It’s hard to hide my tears…
She’s so young she doesn’t know…
How dangerous daddy's job can be…

The hardest thing I do is worry…
I cry myself to sleep begging God to please keep him safe…
I cry sometimes for no reason or because I’m lonely…
But when he calls me and tells me baby I’m on my way…
This hitch is over…
All those worries and fears go away even if only for 7 days…
And I can’t wait to see my Roughneck…

It’s not easy being a Roughnecks wife…
It’s the hardest thing I’ve ever done…
While most husbands come home every night mine…
Stays in a trailer, eats microwaved meals and eats off paper plates all while missing his wife and kids…
For 7 long days at a time…
I love this man he’s a strong man, he’s a Roughneck…
And I’m proud to be his wife…
Even if there are days when I wish he wasn’t in the oilfield…
Days when we miss him so much that it hurts…

Days when nothing goes right…
Days when you just need your man beside you…
I’m still proud to be his wife!…

Comment by Trent Kite on October 5, 2011 at 2:15pm Comment by Dustin Frazier on November 27, 2011 at 12:16pm

Now there is an awesome statement!!! Nice!!

Comment by Suzie Black on November 27, 2011 at 2:41pm Comment by Erin Lynch on December 19, 2011 at 10:50pm

That brought a tear to my eye, I loved it!

Comment by Suzie Black on December 19, 2011 at 10:57pm Comment by Brandy Drake on December 22, 2011 at 5:37pm

this is so true, very well put.....it is great

Comment by Marylisabeth Irwin on February 17, 2012 at 12:03am Comment

View the original article here

Oilfield Fatalities-How Are We Dying?

January 19th, 2012

It's early in the new year and already we are seeing a number of catastrophic drilling accidents which include blowouts and deaths. Despite millions being spent by drilling contractors in training and HSE each year, the deadly pattern continues with the latest tragedy being the KS Endeavor platform off the coast of Nigeria where today 2 missing workers were declared "missing and presumed dead" after the drilling rig blow out that occurred while drilling for Chevron.

Tonight I visited the OSHA website (OSHA records accident details for all industries in the United States) wanting to find out just how oilfield fatalities are occurring. Reading and learning from these tragedies are ways to prevent them in the future.

After reading several hours I have highlighted many drilling rig accidents that have been recorded on the OSHA site over the last several years with links to details of each accident below. I look forward to your comments on how we can make drilling wells a safer occupation.

There are several more pages that include oilfield related drilling fatalities so I plan to update this blog over the next few weeks with those details. Please bookmark this page to follow these reports.

Employee Is Killed When Struck By Falling Pipe

Employee #1 was using an air hoist to lift a 12-foot long, 6.25-inch diameter pipe segment that weighed approximately 1,200 pounds onto a drilling platform. The suspended load did not have a tag line, and the chain sling had been wrapped around the pipe, without a shoulder or place to connect the lifting adapter, with a double half-hitch configuration. The load slipped out of the chain sling and struck Employee #1, killing him.

Employee Killed In Fall From Oil Derrick
Employee #1, the derrick man on a drilling rig that was being rigged down, went up the ladder after the cathead line had become entangled as the stabbing board was being lowered. He was observed pulling on the catline and then had a coworker cut the tag line that went to the fall protection line. He was observed pulling on this tag line, and then climbed to a higher elevation, apparently free climbing because the climb assist was stuck. Shortly thereafter, the counterweight to the climb assist was heard coming down the line very fast and then hit the end of the line. Employee #1 lost his grip and fell 50 ft to the oil rig floor. He was killed. The climb assist apparently was entangled with the tag line for the fall protection. When Employee #1 climbed to a higher level, he created slack in the climb assist so that when it came free, it accelerated very rapidly. This caused a shock overload to its pulley, which apparently jerked Employee #1 off the ladder. Employee #1's failure to use the fall protection equipment also contributed to the accident.


Employee Is Killed In Fall From Rig Monkeyboard

Employee #1, the derrickman, disconnected from his fall protection and stepped or fell off the monkeyboard. Employee #1 was killed in the fall. The investigation was in progress at the time this report was written.

Employee Is Killed When Struck By High Pressure Line

Employee #1 was working on a high pressure line. An explosion occurred, causing the line to strike and kill Employee #1.

The Cause:
Employees were using a 600 psi Hammond ball valve in a 5,000 psi PZL (PZL-11) Triplex drilling mud pump (reduced to 4,200 psi) to pump water through the line. The Hammond 600 psi ball valve failed resulting in one employee being hospitalized and one employee fatality injured.

Employee Is Killed When Struck By Drill Pipe Collar

Employee #1, a derrick man, was working the drilling board (monkey board) when a drill pipe collar came loose from the securing chain and struck him in the head. When reached by coworkers, he was determined to be unconscious. Paramedics were unsuccessful in resuscitation, and Employee #1 was pronounced dead at the scene.

Feasible and Acceptable Abatement Methods would include: 1. Ensure that employees are protected from being struck by drill collars due to the stand of drill collars stored in the alley behind the derrick man. 2. Modify the current procedure for securing the drill collars in the alley. 3. Ensure that employees are trained on securing the stand of drill collars, properly.

Employee Is Killed When Crushed By Falling Pipe

Employee #1 was attempting to repair brackets on a pipe rack. He crawled underneath the tubing and the pipe rack collapsed. He was struck on the back by four 30 ft joints of oil well tubing. Employee #1 was asphyxiated.

Employee Is Burned When Oil Well Blows Out, Later Dies

Employee #1 was operating a pump truck supplying fresh water to the cement truck. After the bottom plug was poured, the well started to flow, uncontrollably. The fluids from the well were reaching the tubing board on the rig mast and falling onto the trucks. The fluids ignited burning 40 percent of Employee #1's body. Employee #1 was being treated at a hospital when he died from complications from the burns.

Employee Is Killed When Safety Harness Strikes
Employee #1 was painting a traveling block of an "A" frame of the drilling unit. Following the completion of the job task, Employee #1 disconnected his lanyard and let it dangle below him. As Employee #1 was being lowered by the air hoist, the lanyard and the air line entangled in the rotating kelly on a rig floor. Employee #1 was pulled into the rotating kelly and struck by the safety harness. He was killed.

OSHA Imposed fines and quoted the following:

American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice 54, August 1999 states in Paragraph 5.5.1 " All personnel, when engaged in work ten feet above the rig floor or other working surfaces, shall be protected at all times from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). When the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use these systems, the employer shall develop and implement an alternative fall protection plan that provides for personnel safety."

American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice 54, August 1999 states in Paragraph 6.8.5 "No personnel shall clean, lubricate, or repair any machinery where there is a hazard of contact with moving parts until such machinery has been stopped or such parts have been properly guarded."


Employee Is Killed When Pinned Between Derrick And Wall

A three-person crew was painting a rig derrick/mast that had been removed from its rig floor and placed horizontally on two stands. The crew was lowering the diving board to its storage/resting position, when the diving board section started to jam up and would not lower to its storage/resting position. Employee #1 was trying to get the back wind wall unjammed, when the board fingers pinched his head against the back wind wall, crushing his head. It appeared as though the cable associated with the wench being used to lower the boards had some slack in the line, and, when Employee #1 freed the wind wall, the board fell into its resting position, pinching the employees head between the fingers and the wind wall. Employee #1 was killed.

Employee Is Struck By Falling Oilfield Equipment, Later Dies

Employee #1, the lead operator of a nipple-up crew and two other crew members had completed torquing the bolts on a dry hole tree at the wellhead of a natural gas well and were preparing to exit from the rig's substructure. Another nipple-up employee had erected a pump beneath the substructure to test the wellhead. Two employees of the drilling crew had begun rig-down activities and had lowered one of two elevator links (bail) to the ground using the air tugger. Control of the second of the bails was lost during the lowering operation. The leg of the 0.25-in. chain sling broke and the bail fell, bouncing into the substructure where it struck Employee #1. Employee #1 suffered a laceration to the head, blunt force trauma to the right chest and shoulder, a fractured right leg and internal injuries. Employee #1 was declared dead a few hours after arrival at the hospital.


Employee Is Struck By Falling Steps And Is Killed

Employee #1 was struck by falling steps when the metal steps he was ascending to the drilling platform dislodged and fell. Employee #1 also fell and the steps landed on him. Employee #1 died of asphyxiation.

OSHA Found:
The drilling contractor did not ensure that employees were protected from falls and a crushing hazard due to inadequately secured stairs leading from the drilling platform to the mud tank. One feasible and acceptable method to abate the hazards noted above would be to secure the steps at more than one point.

View the original article here

Calculate Cement Volume Required

Cement volume calculation is based on annular capacity multiplied by length of cement as per cement program.

This topic will demonstrate you how to determine cement volume as per specification and displace volume. After reading and understanding the concept, you will be able to apply to your cement job.

The knowledge required: annular capacityy and inner capacity of cylindical object

Well information:

Well is drilled with 8.5 inch bit to 9,015 MD/8,505 TVD with oil based mud (9.5 ppg). Estimated hole sized based on an open hole log is 8.6 inch.

Previous casing size is 9-5/8” and its shoe is at 6,500 MD/5000’TVD.

Plan to run 7” casing and planned shoe depth at 9,000’MD/8,500’TVD.

There is one float collar at 8960’MD/8470’ TVD.

Top of cement is 2000 ft above 9-5/8” casing.

Spacer volume is from top of cement to surface.

Casing information

7” casing ID = 6.185”

9-5/8” casing ID = 8.85”

Use hole size measured from the open hole log to determine cement volume.

The well schematic should look like this.

Determine the following items:

• Cement volume

• Spacer volume

• Displace volume

As per the cement program, the final schematic will look like this.

Determine cement volume

Total cement volume = cement in the annulus between open hole and 7” casing + cement in annulus between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing + cement in shoe track

There are three parts that you need to calculate in order to get total cement volume as listed below:

1. cement in the annulus between open hole and 7” casing

2. cement in annulus between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing

3. cement in shoe track

The cement volume is based on annular capacity multiplied by cement length of each section.

Cement in the annulus between open hole and 7” casing

Annular capacity between open hole and 7” casing = (8.62-72) ÷ 1029.4 = 0.02425 bbl/ft

Length from 7” casing shoe to 9-5/8” casing shoe = 9000 – 6500 = 2500 ft

Cement in the annulus between open hole and 7” casing = 0.02425x2500 = 60.6 bbl

Cement in annulus between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing

Annular capacity between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing = (8.852-72) ÷ 1029.4 = 0.02849 bbl/ft

Length of cement inside 7” casing = 2000 ft

Cement in annulus between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing = 0.02849 x 2000 = 57 bbl

Cement in shoe track

Capacity of 7” casing = 6.1852 ÷ 1029.4 = 0.03716 bbl/ft

Shoe track length = 40 ft

Cement in shoe track = 40 x 0.03716 = 1.5 bbl

Total Cement Volume

Total cement = 60.6 + 57 + 1.5 = 119.1 bbl

Determine space volume

As per the cement program, spacer will be at surface.

Spacer volume = Annular capacity between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing x length of spacer

Annular capacity between 9-5/8” casing and 7” casing = (8.852-72) ÷ 1029.4 = 0.02849 bbl/ft

Length of spacer = volume annulus to TOC

TOC 2000 ft inside casing shoe = 6,500 – 2,000 = 4,500 ft

Spacer volume = 0.02849 x 4,500 = 128.2 bbl

Determine displace volume

The displacement volume is from surface to the float collar where the top plug will sit on.

Displacement volume = Capacity of 7” casing x Length to the float collar

Capacity of 7” casing = 6.1852 ÷ 1029.4 = 0.03716 bbl/ft

Length to the float collar = 8,960 ft

Displacement volume = 0.03716 x 8960 = 333 bbl

Conclusion for this cement calculation

• Cement volume = 119.1 bbl

• Spacer volume = 128.2 bbl

• Displace volume = 333 bbl

With this example, I wish you would understand more about how to determine cement volume. Please remember that any cement volume calculation is based on this concept.

Ref: The topic of Calculate Cement (Oil Well Cement) Volume Required at the drilling formulas blog.

View the original article here

Shell Oil Spill off Nigeria Likely Worst in Decade

 Associated Press LAGOS, Nigeria December 22, 2011 (AP)

An oil spill near the coast of Nigeria is likely the worst to hit those waters in a decade, a government official said Thursday, as slicks from the Royal Dutch Shell PLC spill approached the southern shoreline.

The slick from Shell's Bonga field has affected 115 miles of ocean near Nigeria's coast, Peter Idabor, who leads the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency, told The Associated Press. Idabor said officials expect the slick to reach beaches in Rivers state by Thursday afternoon

Shell, the major oil producer in Nigeria, said Wednesday the spill likely occurred as workers tried to offload oil onto a waiting tanker

The source of the leak has been plugged, Idabor said, but the spill still threatens the shoreline and wildlife. Idabor said experts from Britain were coming to help with the cleanup

Environmentalists blame Shell for polluting the country's oil-rich Niger Delta

Shell in recent years has said most of the spills in the delta are caused by thieves tapping into pipelines to steal crude oil, which ends up sold into the black market or cooked into a crude diesel or kerosene


Comment by khaled Mohamed shehab on December 22, 2011 at 7:33am

Improved approaches are needed for assessing different safety-related scenarios and  the associated risk levels prior to the occurrence of a relevant incident


View the original article here